Such put their lives at risk and could sometimes lead to death. with Krapf to establish Christianity in East Africa, hence laying the foundation on which subsequent efforts were to be built. In 1879, the Roman Catholic Missionaries and White Fathers followed also from Tabora ad Kibanga. They came in through Tabora and Usukuma and reached Rubaga, mutesa’s capital in 1877 where they set up a church. Christian missionaries in East Africa were faced with various problems which clipped their activities at times. Contacts Between East Africa And The Outside World Up To The 19th Century Tropical diseases like malaria, small pox, claimed many missionary lives thus making progress in their activities very difficult since they could be left very few in numbers. The narrative begins in the first century AD, thence traces the major movements of the Christian faith on the continent over the centuries, emphasising the continuity of the development of the Church as a … These general characteristics are found in the hig… l) Mission stations served as colonial government headquarters. Missionary work in Tanganyika was motivated by the reports given by Dr, David Livingstone on the horrors of slave trade. f) Some missionary groups sought for alliances with African chiefs. Customs like polygamy, satanic worship, etc were deep rooted into African communities which proved a threat for the missionaries to successfully uproot them. Mutesa I of Buganda and Mirambo of Nyamwezi all gave them protection as well as rights to do their work in their territories. Identify the effects of slave trade on Africans, State the reasons for decline of Portuguese power, State reasons for the building of Fort Jesus, Primary and High School Exams in Kenya With Marking Schemes. i) The missionaries faced the problem of lack of supplies. Agrarian Revolution Date posted: March 11, 2017. This was because East Africa had a multiplicity of languages hence rendering communication between the missionaries and the local people very difficult. Eventually, its churches and the churches headquartered at Rome divided. Kilimanjaro. Development Of Industry Krapt arrived and established a mission station at Rabai. c) In fact there was a reciprocal relationship between missionaries and the colonialists that is why missionaries laid the ground work before the partitioners offered missionaries protection for the success of their evangelization mission. Constitutions-and-constitution-making SOCIAL E.g. They also acted as front runners in the colonization process. In the technical schools, carpentry and brick laying skills were obtained. This was inform of finance and physical manpower for instance colonial governments gave protection to the missionaries whenever they were challenged by local chiefs or other threats. A History of the Church in Africa. The first Christians to visit East Africa were Vasco da Gama and his crew, including Roman Catholic missionaries, in 1498. The process began with the formation of special jurisdictions, known as apostolic prefectures and apostolic vicariates. This could create divisions and biases among the believers thus weakening their capacity to convert more converts. Course-of-the-cold-war h) The presence of wild animals was also a threat to the missionary activities in East Africa. By the 19th century, a number of missionary groups worked in East Africa and these included; The University Missionary Society to Central Africa. They tried to convert and baptize many people into Christianity from their paganism and Islam. They for example set up a church at Zanzibar, Rubaga and Rabai missionary station near Mombasa. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT b) There was a problem of the influence of Islam. 2) Learning of new Languages such as Mijikenda and Swahili By the 19th century, a number of missionary groups worked in East Africa and these included; The Church Missionary Society; The Holy Ghost Fathers; The University Missionary Society to Central Africa; The White Fathers Christianity. They were able to convert some people among the Mijikenda. Chapter 16: European Invasion And The Process Of Colonization Of Africa The converts and the non-converts hated each other which caused division to the advantage of the Europeans. For example, Kraft was the first European to see Mt. Henry Morton Stanley confirming Kabaka Mutesa I’s invitation. FORM 1 The ancient East African kingdom of Aksum gradually adopted Christianity from the early- to mid-fourth-century reign of Ezana onwards. c) They wanted to check on the spread of Islam in East Africa from the coast with intentions of converting many to Christianity. It is the story of peoples seizing control of their own spiritual destinies—rather than the commonplace notion that the continent’s Christian churches represent colonial and capitalist powers that helped subdue Africans to European domination. The building of strong boats and ships gave Europeans courage to travel far from home. k) The missionaries made their work difficult by involving in politics and judicial systems which were beyond spiritual jurisdiction. Bishop K. Boroup for example introduced cotton in Uganda. Dr Albert Cook built Mengo hospital. Only at the end of the eighteenth century did the Evangelical Revival begin to bring to Africa an influx of missionaries whose labors would produce the first fruits of an enduring Christian presence in Sub … The variations lie in the idioms and symbols used to express these features and abilities. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000. All The missionaries appealed to their home governments for protection in case of attack. (h) They opened up primary and secondary schools as well as training collages for teachers and trade schools for craftsmen e.g. In 1863, the University Mission Society to Central Africa under Bishop Tozer moved to Zanzibar where a mission was started from Re-union and later to Bagamoyo. ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU) This enhanced evangelization into the local population. (l) Missionaries destroyed local industries like craft industry e.g. d) They carried out exploration work into the discovery of various East African physical features. Chapter 28: Social In 1891, the Presbyterian Church of Scotland arrived in Kenya and began their work at Kibwezi in Machakos. The ancient East African kingdom of Aksum gradually adopted Christianity from the early- to mid-fourth-century reign of Ezana onwards. They for example participated in the overthrow of Kabaka Mwanga of Buganda. The well-known narrative of the late Roman church-historian Rufinus relates a top-down process of conversion, For instance Captain Lugard supported the Protestants in the religious wars in Buganda. March 2017 Follow us now to receive the latest updates @schoolatika, factors that challenged Johann Ludwig Kraft on arrival to mombasa, 1) His wife and young daughter suffered and died from malaria The well-known narrative of the late Roman church-historian Rufinus relates a top-down process of conversion, starting with the ruler himself. (k) Missionaries improved communication and transport which in turn led to the opening up of the hinterland of Africa. This was made possible through education where the African elite emerged and started demanding for independence e.g. African Lugard used old Kampala hill as a military base against Kabalega. i) The information they gave about important places like the source of the Nile, fertile soils, river falls and the climate all attracted the missionaries into East Africa. They came in late 1800s, and sacrificed greatly. According to tradition, the disciple Mark the Evangelistwas the one to firs… African initiatives to Africanize Christianity encouraged its growth in East Africa.. o) The death of Dr. David Livingstone in 1873 and other earlier missionaries increased the determination by many groups to see missionary work succeed in Africa, and East Africa in particular. Chapter 25: International Relations Such communities thus looked at missionary work as “a life- saving mission”. Even early written literature shows the presence of Christianity in North Africa. EARLY AFRICAN CHRISTIANITY According to tradition, shortly after the founding of Christianity the apostle Philip baptized a member of the royal court of ETHIOPIA. there was sustained missionary activity by Churches of every denomination. p) They acted as interpreters e.g. as Dr. Livingstone told Cambridge University students, “I go back to Africa to make an open pass for commerce and Christianity…..”Similarly, his speech in 1857 emphasized the unity between Christianity and Commerce. The roles of these missionaries varied enormously depending on the colonial context and their relations with the colonial authorities. j) The expulsion of some of the missionaries from other parts of Africa led them into East Africa. Chapter 27: National Philosophies (Kenya) In 1862, the united Methodist Church led by Thomas Wakefield arrived from Britain and settled at the coast. For example, by the time Sir Edward Frere arrived in East Africa (1873) Rebmann had only 6 converts. Dr.Livingstone of UMCA also worked I Ujiji in 1871 where he met with Henry Morton Stanley, a journalist who had been sent to look for him. at Bagamoyo and Frere townnear Mombasa where skills like carpentry, and agriculture were taught. m) Colonialists lacked skilled manpower, so the missionaries by design or accident were very faithful servants of the colonial government i.e. These include: a) They faced the problem of language barrier. The early church in North Africa went through severe persecutions A.D. 64 thru 311. KM: Being from Kenya, and East Africa generally, two efforts especially stick out for me. h) The missionaries also received the support of African converts in spreading the Gospel. The catholic missionary societies, like the Holy Ghost Fathers and the Consolata Fathers arrived in Zanzibar but later moved to Mombasa in 1890. He decided on a vocation to urge the descendants of these creative Africans to retake their fame. By 1889, about 1400 slaves had settled in Freetown. (j) They paved way for the improvement of agriculture through establishing experimental farms and plantations where new crops, better methods of farming and equipment were introduced for example cotton was introduced by Kenneth Boroup in 1903 and Africans were taught how to use a plough and how to grow coffee. One is by a group called the Africa Inland Mission (AIM). EARLY MAN Formation-of-government View More History and Government Questions and Answers | Return to Questions Index, State five reasons for the coming of Christian Missionaries in East Africa, Date posted: March 13, 2017. Chapter 32: The Electoral Process And Functions Of Governments In Other Parts Of The World g) The missionaries’ efforts to translate the bible into several local languages helped them succeed for example Kraft translated the New Testament of the Bible into Swahili and wrote a Swahili dictionary and a Grammar book. As would be expected, even though there are variations, in all of them the Deity is attributed broadly similar characteristics: omnipotence, everlastingness, ubiquity, and being beyond the comprehension and control of ordinary living people. In 1875, the London Missionary Society set up a mission post around Lake Tanganyika. Of Early Agriculture This ensured steady supply of food. Chapter-12-urbanisation FORM 2 Converts could now teach in their mother tongue and therefore overcame the language barrier. Kenya in 1849 while Rebmann was the first to European see Kilimanjaro in 1848. e) Christian missionaries set up stations for free rehabilitation services for example in 1868 the Holy Ghost Fathers set up a home for the free slaves at Zanzibar. g) Christian missionaries were also influential in establishing educational institutions and training efficient class of African clergy (catechists) who were close and more understandable to the local communities. What were challenges faced by missionary activities in East Africa? All East African religions have a belief in a high god, the creator. The missionaries could now travel between the coast and the interior. The Portuguese were the first to introduce Christianity to the east African coast in the 15th c. this attempt however had little success. December 2019 For example the Scottish Mission of the Livingstone Mission and the church of Scotland Mission set upstatations around lake Nyasa in 1876. a) Missionaries carried out evangelization. b) The evils of slave trade made East Africans welcome missionaries as liberators. The discovery of quinine also facilitated their work as it cured tropical diseases. Early contacts by travelers like Stanley, Speke and Grant, among others encouraged missionaries to come. July 2020 THE COMMON MARKETS FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA e) They came to establish legitimate trade in East Africa. Such treaties of friendship made their work easy since the chiefs would call on their subjects to take on the missionary teachings. This class helped colonialists to fight resistors despite the fact that they were all Africans. j) Collaboration with chattered companies, European Christian missionaries and their converts worked hand in hand with the Imperial British East African Company to defeat Kabalega’s resistance. Chapter 13 Social By the end of the 2nd century the scriptures and liturgy had been translated into three local languages. Christianity, as a religion, originated in the early 1st century CE following the teachings of Hebrew leader Jesus Christ of Nazarene and his disciples. In 1877, the Church Missionary Society mission arrived in Buganda while the white fathers arrived in 1879. April 2020 c) The support they got from some of the local chiefs and kings led to their success. as Dr. Livingstone told Cambridge University students, “I go back to Africa to make an open pass for commerce and Christianity…..” Similarly, his speech in 1857 emphasized the unity between Christianity and Commerce. The first Europeans arrived on the coast of W. Africa at the end of the 15th cent., but for the most part they were involved in the slave trade rather than in evangelization. For instance, H.M Stanley had identified Buganda as a hospitable community for the missionaries and they were later welcomed by the Kabaka of Buganda in 1877. e) The support missionaries got from their home governments led them to success. (o) Mission stations were developed in towns like Rabai missionary station near Mombasa. they were Colonial government servants. i) The industrial revolution had provided such technology like the printing press which made printing of bibles and other academic work easy. It started around the eastern Mediterranean region, ranging from roughly Greece through the Levant, and spread from there. “The CMS was the first in the field …. EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN NORTH AFRICA There is little certainty about the date of entry of Christianity into Egypt and much of the regions to the west such as Cyrenia, Numidia, Africa and Mauretania. The ancient East African kingdom of Aksum gradually adopted Christianity from the early- to mid-fourth-century reign of Ezana onwards. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT, CHAPTER 20: Political Developments And Struggle For Independence In Kenya (1919-1963), CHAPTER 22: EMERGENCE AND GROWTH OF NATIONALISM IN AFRICA, Chapter 27: National Philosophies (Kenya), Chapter 32: The Electoral Process And Functions Of Governments In Other Parts Of The World, Contacts Between East Africa And The Outside World Up To The 19th Century, Development-and-organization-of-long-distance-trade, Development-and-organization-of-long-distance-trade-during-precolonial-period-in-east-africa, Economic And Political Developments And Challenges In Africa Since Independence, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE, Economic-and-political-organization-of-african-societies-in-the-19th-century, LIVES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF KENYAN LEADERS, MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY IN KENYA SINCE 1991, Structure And Functions Of The Government Of Kenya, THE COMMON MARKETS FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA, THE PEOPLES OF KENYA UP TO THE 19TH CENTURY. Answers (1), Name six factors that led to the development of international trade, Identify Consequences of the long distance trade. Female Genital Mutilation among the Kikuyu in Kenya, human sacrifices and the practice of killing twins. o) Missionaries also trained manpower through introduction of education which was used by colonialists. It's a good length (at about 200 pages, not too long or too short) and covers a variety of important topics. By 1885, they had set up five villages that were to act as Christian outposts. LIVES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF KENYAN LEADERS the London news paper wrote after his death, “the work for Africa must hence forth begin in earnest where Livingstone left it off.”, p) Establishment of resettlement centers for freed slaves e.g. October 2020 Focused on European strategies for the planting of Christianity in Africa and on the heroic missionary efforts to implement these plans, this literature hardly spoke to the theme of encounter at all. When they realized they were not making any great impact at the coast, the two moved into the interior visiting the Akamba and Taita. In this way, Christianity arrived in Africa before it reached Europe. They for example lacked enough money, accommodation and drugs. PUBLIC REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN KENYA Their coming of Christian missionaries to East Africa and Africa in general was based on a number of motives which were humanitarian, economic, political and social in nature. manufactured items like cups, saucepans, etc. Its connection with the political history of early days, the difficulties, it successfully surpassed and the assistance it rendered to the colonial government at the time of the rebellions are too well known to need recapitulation. g) They had a mission to clear the way for the colonization of East Africa. Early Christianity in North Africa Kenneth Sawyer & Y ouhana Youssef INTRODUCTION In 1866, Edward Wilmot Blyden visited Egypt. Making your way around early African Christianity means learning about Christian groups new to many Westerners. Africans educated mainly in English and French emerged, these later served as doctors, lawyers, clerks, teachers, catechists, agriculturalists and priests who played a great role of spreading Christianity. Perhaps the most accurate term to translate this concept here is Deity. They came to establish legitimate trade in East Africa. Dr Kraft for example translated the Bible into Swahili and wrote a Swahili dictionary and grammar hence making it easy for people to understand the Bible more. Islam was only greatly dominant at the coast. n) They created a peaceful atmosphere for the germination of colonialism in areas of hostility. CHAPTER 24: WORLD WARS Earlier travelers like John Speke and James Grant, H.M. Stanley, Dr. David Livingstone and others had reported about the evils of slave trade in East Africa. June 2020 CHAPTER 17: ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN KENYA. In 1949, Jacob Erhardt, a Germany explorer joined them and became the first European to draw a crude map of east Africa fro then stories he heard from traders. So, Christianity first entered Africa along the Mediterranean and Red Seas, moving into Northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula by the late first or early second centuries CE. c) Existence of tropical diseases was yet another problem faced by the Christian missionaries. spiritual jurisdiction. Krapt discovered the source of riverTana and was the first European to see Mount Kenya in 1849. It will additionally examine Christianity in sub-Saharan Africa before 1800 including the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and Kongo Catholicism. This helped and enhanced the propagation of faith. In the religious wars in Buganda, the British fought behind the Protestants. This led to loss of political, economic and social powers to the British protectorate government. African initiatives to Africanize Christianity encouraged its growth in East Africa.. o) The death of Dr. David Livingstone in 1873 and other earlier missionaries increased the determination by many groups to see missionary work succeed in Africa, and East Africa in particular. The church missionary society and Captain Lugard viewed that the company’s withdraw would live the British and the protestant party in a dangerous position versus Moslems. Period-in-kenya THE JUDICIARY. (i) A new class of elite emerged. Give reasons why Akamba participated in the long distance trade. blacksmiths, pottery work were all destroyed and replaced with European products e.g. a) The missionaries faced no strong opposition from any religion. Tucker in the 1900 Buganda agreement. Indeed, in some situations the converts were taught to feel that they were absolved from obeying their own traditional rulers and certain laws of the state. HISTORY FORM 1 TOPICS e) Missionaries enhanced the growth of tropical raw materials like coffee, cotton to satisfy the British industrialists urge but disguising everything in Christianity. Missionary work expanded upto lake Nyasa. North Africans were the first to receive and embrace the Gospel of Jesus Christ. k) Missionary stations served as military bases from where the European colonial forces launched attacks on the resisting Africans. f) The missionaries also loved to adventure and explore the interior of East Africa. j) The Christian missionaries faced the problem of stiff contradiction and rivals between European missionaries and traditional Africans. THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY The missionaries here enjoyed the support of the sultan of Zanzibar, Seyyid Said. j) Their efforts in life saving services like medical care (Quinine) won them great admiration among the people of East Africa that few were ready to oppose them. (n) They fought slave trade which was later abolished and equality and liberty for all was encouraged in East Africa. c) The Christian missionaries built many churches in East Africa many of which are still in existence. (b) African religious beliefs, culture and traditions were despised and demoralized for example the birth and murder of twins, human sacrifice. They also set up mission stations at Jomvu and Lamu. (m) They contributed to the rise of nationalism. Chapter-8-national-integration Fathers Mission in Algeria (1863) extended to other parts of Africa. For example, the Mission Hospitals at Rabai, Thogoto, Kaimosi e.t.c. For example Kraft translated the New Testament of the Bible into Swahili, Bishop Edward Steere based in Zanzibar learnt and studied Swahili and translated books from English to Swahili, published the New Testament and the entire Bible in 1891. This was because they originated from very far (Europe) thus making it difficult for them to have full time and constant supplies. e) Divisions and quarrels between various missionary groups for example Catholics versus Protestants was a hindrance to their activities. Members of the African Inland Church from the United States of America established their station at Nzaui in Machakos. The CMS began a freed slave centre at Freetown in 1875 where the freed slaves were taught Christianity and formal education. CHAPTER 17: ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN KENYA. May 2019 Local leaders could misinterpret them as political rivals and organize their masses for resistance against missionary activities. They argued that they came to stop some of the barbaric acts and customs e.g. q) Through conversion of the Buganda chiefs and pages before Buganda commoners it meant that each party i.e. d) The Church missionary society managed to raise enough funds for Imperial British East African Company for its staying in Uganda for at least 2 or more years. This was a political security of sympathy to the Christian missionaries as against the Kabaka in Buganda’s leadership. Ethiopia is the only state in Africa with an almost non-colonial history; furthermore Ethiopia is a state with a tradition in Christianity far back to the earliest spread of Christian belief. All Rights Reserved | Home | About Us | Contact Us | Copyright | Terms Of Use | Privacy Policy | Advertise, Identify five reasons for the coming of Christian Missionaries in East Africa. April 2017 Local Authorities In Kenya By 1914 there were many missionary societies working in western Kenya. CHAPTER 23: The Formation Catechists were also trained who helped in the spread of Christianity for example, in Kenya by 1911 many people had been converted and many cathedrals and churches were built like the Kikuyu churches (Charismatic Arathi or spirit churches.). Chapter 26: Co-Operation In Africa The first protestant missionaries were sent from England in 1876 after a letter that was sent by. MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY IN KENYA SINCE 1991 (f) They studied African languages and translated the Bible into various languages. Both facts attrack even foreign researchers to focus their interests on the history of this country, … Mark the Evangelist made history in the year 43 when he became the first bishop to serve in the Orthodox Church of Alexandria. m) Political stability in East Africa favoured missionary work because missionaries could settle. g) Presence of hostile tribes in East Africa was also a problem that faced Christian missionaries. f) They appealed to their home governments for protection in case of attack. Chapter-7-citizenship Soon there ensued rivalry between the Catholics and protestants. Alliance High School, Kisubi Vocational School. the Church Missionary Society and France had gained converts. The missionaries were tasked by their home governments to preach ideas of love, respect, brotherhood, forgiveness, tolerance and non violence so that when the colonialists come, they would meet less resistance from the East Africans. Tom Mboya, Obote, Nyerere, and Kenyatta. In 1863, a group of missionaries from the Holy Ghost Fathers arrived from Reunion where they had been working among freed slaves and began their work in Zanzibar. Mark arrived in Egypt around 42 C.E., Philip traveled all the way to Carthage before heading east into Asia Minor, Matthew visited Ethiopia (by way of Persia), as did Bartholomew. For example Johann Ludwig Kraft and Johann Redman are said to have been expelled from Ethiopia around 1842 before they chose to relocate to East Africa. a) Missionaries signed treaties which were later used by colonialists to take over colonies e.g. k) The missionaries’ practical skills enabled them to survive even when their supplies from home delayed. "Christianity in Africa is so old that it can be rightly described as an indigenous, traditional and African religion," says Dr. Mbiti.3 The conversion of the 2 Professor Watson A. Over time it was intended that a normal church structure would be established in the mission areas. This would be through preaching and teaching the holy gospel so that many would get converted to Christianity. CHAPTER 21: Rise Of African Nationalism The established mission infrastructure was used to help in the establishment and sustenance of European colonial rule. h) Christian missionaries were at times involved in political processes that were beyond. In 1875, Freetown Mission a centre for freed slaves was established. In 1863, the University Mission Society to Central Africa moved to Zanzibar where a mission was started from Re-union and later to Bagamoyo. These hindered their free movement to various places thus a threat to their activities. Development-and-organization-of-long-distance-trade-during-precolonial-period-in-east-africa Arabs being the first group of people to arrive at the coast and interior had deep rooted Islam into the people thus making it difficult for the people to easily adopt Christianity. Their campaign against slave trade won them much support from different tribes in East Africa. Christianity has been spread in Africa by Africans. CHAPTER 18: COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION 0. Man enters in Tsavo National Park consumed and threatened many whites. f) Christian missionaries participated in skill development in East Africa. The Alexandria-based church initially used Greek, and it was not until the late 2nd century that both the liturgy and the scriptures were translated into three native languages. a) The missionaries had the ambition to spread Christianity to the people of East Africa. why the Akamba participated in the long distance trade. For example Dr. John Ludwig Kraft of CMS is said to have been the first European to see Mt. May 2017 They for instance adopted agriculture as soon as they settled anywhere. (e) They put to an end the inter-tribal or inter-village wars and established a stable and peaceful society under one faithful leader (centralization). 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